Using a Triad approach within voluntary cleanup programs (VCUPs).
The requirements and terminology of VCUPs vary from state to state, and agency to agency. In general, however, they are structured to mirror the general CERCLA process, including a site assessment phase to determine if there is the possibility for problems, a remedial investigation to identify the nature and extent of problems, and a remediation phase to bring a site into compliance with any general or site-specific cleanup standards. Because VCUPs typically follow the lead of CERCLA or RCRA, a Triad approach has the same points of application within VCUPs as with the other two major federal programs. Because VCUPs are generally less prescriptive about regulatory milestones, requirements for public review periods, etc., there is a greater potential for schedule and process compression. The Triad can play a critical role in supporting VCUP schedule compression.