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Cost & Time Savings

The summaries below highlight noteworthy cost and/or time savings documented in the Triad Project Profiles. Click on a project name to view the full project profile.

A Triad Case Study: Finding an Unexpected Trichloroethene Source Area (U.S. Navy Lead)

Under the conventional sampling approach, soil, soil gas, and groundwater samples would have been analyzed for a full suite of chemicals, resulting in unnecessary analytical expenses. Source area soil and groundwater samples were initially analyzed for a comprehensive list of compounds. After the first phase of sampling, compounds that were not detected were excluded from further sampling and analysis. Without the use of Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Cone Penetrometer Test / Membrane Interface Probe (CPT/MIP), monitoring wells would have been installed 'blind' without knowledge of solvent-impacted hydrogeologic units and detailed stratigraphic data for optimal well screen placement. Substantial cost savings were recognized by first developing the hydrogeologic CSM through the use of CPT/MIP coupled with direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS). If the conventional approach of installing step-out monitoring wells was used, the site would have remained uncharacterized because the wells would not have revealed the full extent of the complex, multifaceted plume. The high-resolution data provided by the CPT/MIP results revealed that the VOCs followed preferential stratigraphic pathways and migrated deeper in the aquifer than previously expected. Through the use of SCAPS with CPT/MIP, there was an overall reduction in the number of soil and soil gas samples and monitoring well installations than would have been required by the conventional approach.

Characterization of a TCE Source Plume in One Mobilization Integrating Multiple Real-Time Technologies, Hill Air Force Base, Utah (U.S. Air Force Lead)

The project team identified cost and time savings associated with a real-time dynamic work strategy (DWS) using CPT/DSITMS for soil and groundwater analysis. The use of CPT/DSITMS instead of conventional drilling technologies with off-site laboratory analysis was estimated to represent a 30% realized cost savings.

Characterization of Chlorinated Solvent Plume using Membrane Interface Probe and Cone Penetrometer Test Technology at Site 14, Naval Air Station Lemoore, Lemoore, California (U.S. Navy Lead)
Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Using Immunoassay PCB Test Kits and Field Gas Chromatography (GC) Analysis at the Albert Steel Drum Site, Newark, New Jersey (State Lead)

The Site was characterized using inexpensive FAMs during a single field sampling event, thereby saving costs associated with multiple sampling events. The cost of the incremental investigation using the Triad Approach was estimated at $30,000 versus the approximate conventional investigation cost of $400,000 estimated for previous data collection activities at the Site. (The costs to implement the Triad would have been greater if the data from the conventional investigation were not available.) By using principles of the Triad Approach, the estimate for remedial action costs were lowered from initial estimates of $14.35 million to $0.76 million, a reduction of 94% of the total costs.

Characterization, Removal, and Close-out of a Radiological Materials Site in a Single Field Program Using Field-based Gross Gamma Surveys and Gamma Spectrometry Methods (PRP Lead)

The investigation, remediation, and site close-out activities were compressed into one field deployment that lasted several days. The work resulted in a very precise removal of contaminated material, providing the site owner with significant disposal cost savings by minimizing waste streams. The project team estimates that the use of real-time measurement techniques resulted in an analytical cost savings of more than 50%.

Characterizing a Complex TCE Groundwater Plume, Eliminating Suspected Source Areas, and Reducing Investigation Costs for a RCRA RFI at Shaw AFB, SC (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Overall, using the Triad Approach resulted in about $80K in direct cost reductions and an estimated $450 K in cost avoidance. Time savings was estimated to be approximately two years.

Consolidation of Multiple Sites for Excavation and Thermal Treatment of PCB Contaminated Soil at Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Oahu, Hawaii (U.S. Navy Lead)

The Navy estimated an analytical savings of $165,000 using the DOE's efficient hexagonal grid sampling system.

Savings for thermal treatment at former NAS Barbers Point versus off site transport and disposal were estimated at $24 million.

More than 44,500 cy of contaminated soil from 82 sites was excavated, treated, and placed back on site as clean fill in less than 2 years.

A consolidated remediation verification report (RVR) for most sites associated with thermal treatment of PCB-contaminated soil and concrete is being developed. The report consolidates information from seven previously prepared RVRs, resulting in time and cost savings to the Navy.

Delineation of Chlorobenzenes using a Membrane Interface Probe to Support Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment at a Former Landfill Site, Camden, New Jersey (State Lead)
Dynamic Work Strategy Using a Total Vapor Analyzer and Colorimetric Methods for Detection of Chlorinated Solvents and Petroleum Constituents at the Callaway Drum Recycling Site, Auburndale, Florida (State Lead)

Although no quantitative estimates of cost or time savings have been developed by the project team, there is general concurrence among the stakeholders that the Triad produced a cheaper, faster, and better PA/SI than the conventional approach could have produced. Unlike many PA/Sis, the project was performed in a single mobilization, with a significant reduction in analytical cost due to the small number of samples shipped to the fixed laboratory for off-site analysis.

Expedited Characterization and Excavation of Lead in Soil Using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Ross Metals Site, Rossville, TN (EPA Lead)

Although no quantitative estimates of cost or time savings have been developed by the project team, there is general concurrence among the stakeholders that the Triad produced a cheaper, faster, and better remedial action than the conventional approach could have. Cost and time benefits were assessed even after accounting for the additional upfront systematic planning, Work Plan preparation, and the DMA that were performed under the Triad. The increased costs and longer remediation timeframes for the conventional approach were projected to include additional mobilizations to the Site with accompanying sampling and analysis plans. Moreover, because the exclusive use of fixed-base laboratory methods under a conventional approach would have produced higher per sample costs, the project team might have had to base remedial decisions on lower data densities. Lower data densities in combination with longer laboratory turnaround times would have resulted in higher disposal costs, given that contaminated areas of the Site would have been defined at a lower level of resolution, and that downtime or additional mobilizations would have been incurred in waiting for results. The conventional approach would have resulted in higher site uncertainty, therefore, more likely leading to overestimates of excavation areas to reduce the risk of an incorrect disposal decision (that is, leaving contaminated material in place).

Expedited Characterization of Petroleum Constituents and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using Test Kits and Mobile Laboratory Gas Chromatography at Former Cos Cob Power Plant, Greenwich, CT (Municipal/Local Lead)

Overall cost savings for the project were estimated at 35 percent when compared to a "conventional approach" to site characterization. The project team assessed these savings even after accounting for the additional upfront SPP efforts, revised Work Plan preparation, and the DMA that was performed under the Triad.

Costs for the conventional approach assumed two mobilizations and accompanying sampling and analysis plans. Lower data density and higher analytical costs were also assumed when using a conventional approach with exclusive use of fixed-base laboratory analyses.

The project team further estimated a time savings of approximately 1 year, assuming that a conventional approach would have required at least two mobilizations performed over two 1-year TBA funding cycles.

Expedited Site Characterization of Mixed Chlorinated Solvents and Petroleum Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Using Multiple Investigative Techniques in Conjunction with Mobile and Fixed Labs at Fort Lewis Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, WA (U.S. Army Lead)

The work was accomplished with minimal mobilizations, because the necessary quantity and quality of data were collected in each phase. Reduced mobilizations results in less time needed to plan and fund additional phases.

Cost savings are estimated at 40-50% based on avoiding the likely need to nearly double the number of sampling points required for the Triad Approach if a standard grid was implemented with no adaptive ability to optimize sampling locations based on near real-time data. The time savings is estimated at 1-2 years based on avoiding the need to develop and approve plans for additional field mobilizations and implement contracting for additional mobilizations.

Expedited Site Characterization of Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPL) and Petroleum Constituents Using the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) and a Mobile Laboratory, McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company, Stockton, CA (EPA Lead)

A primary goal of the project was to use EPA's Triad Approach and HRSC methods to increase data density, potentially driving down removal and treatment costs by more effectively defining the source areas requiring aggressive remediation techniques. Triad and HRSC allowed for accurate delineation of contamination, therefore, an accurate evaluation and costing of remedial alternatives was developed with a minimum number of mobilizations to outline a remedial strategy to the satisfaction of the project stakeholders.

Getting a “Troubled” Remedial Action Site Back on Track: Case Example of Triad Approach, Oxnard, CA (Municipal/Local Lead)

The membrane interface probe (MIP) investigation saved an estimated $75,000 in repeated mobilizations.

Rapid Characterization and Management of Decision Uncertainty Using Membrane Interface Probe Technology at Multiple Petroleum Release Sites, South Dakota (State Lead)

Cost comparisons were made at the three sites where previous assessments had been performed and multiple data gaps still existed. The three conventional assessments cost $35K, $63K, and $103K. The respective Triad HRSC assessments cost $30K (14% savings), $31K (51%savings), and $31K (70% savings). This corresponds to a total savings of $109K for the three sites compared with funds previously spent to assess these sites. This is a less than perfect comparison since the Triad assessments built on the knowledge gained from the conventional assessments. Thus, it may not be appropriate to equate the conventional to the Triad assessment costs and obtain a cost savings. However, the incongruity in the comparison is somewhat offset by the fact that the conventional assessments left the investigators with uncertainty regarding the CSM, while the Triad-based HRSC tended to remove those uncertainties. For the two sites that did not have previous investigations, the Triad HRSC costs were $25K and $32K. In addition, sufficient data were collected at each site to develop CAPs and move the sites out of the investigation phase, where they had been for more than 10 years.

Comparisons of analytical cost savings were not conducted; however, evaluation of fixed-base laboratory data indicates that soil and water samples were collected at approximately one third of the MIP locations, resulting in significant savings and more efficient use of project resources.

Rapid Characterization and Treatment of Pesticide Contamination in Soil using Test Kits and Low Temperature Thermal Desorption at the Economy Products Site, Shenandoah, Iowa (EPA Lead)

The project team estimated cost savings of nearly $25,000 in analytical costs alone. Substantially more cost savings were likely achieved by reducing the amount of time required to make decisions about when sufficient soil had been excavated. The project team estimated that at least five full days of excavation and backfill operations were trimmed from the project. However, no further estimate was made for the amount of cost savings based on the time saved.

Continuously monitoring the performance of the field-based data against the laboratory methods provided part of the $25,000 in analytical cost savings. When it was noted that the industrial FBAL was overly conservative, the FBAL was revised to reduce cost while still meeting the target RALs. For more detail, see the sections on Dynamic Work Plans and Decision Logic in this Triad Profile.

Rapid Characterization of Chlorinated and Hydrocarbon Solvent Contamination in Soil and Groundwater Using Direct Push Sensors for the C-17 Hangar Military Construction (MILCON) Project at McGuire Air Force Base, New Hanover, New Jersey (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Cost savings have been estimated as greater than 50% by the Air Force. Costs associated with the investigation and remedial actions have totaled $1.2 million during government fiscal years 2003 through 2007, and the Air Force has estimated that $1.34 million in savings was realized by using the Triad program.

Time savings were estimated as 18 to 24 months (three to five times the total length of the 5-month Triad program).

Real-time Delineation of a 1,4-Dioxane Plume in Wetlands using Solid-Phase Micro-extraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry at Naval Air Station Brunswick, Maine (U.S. Navy Lead)
Real-time Delineation of a Free Product Fuel and Groundwater Contamination using a Membrane Interface Probe at the Fannon Oil Site, Alexandria, Virginia (PRP Lead)
Real-time Delineation of Chlorinated Solvent Contamination using Color-Tec® Test Kits at Naval Construction Battalion Center Davisville, Rhode Island (U.S. Navy Lead)

Additional cost and time savings were realized from the use of Color-Tec® by reducing or avoiding other project efforts such as 1) preparation and validation of fixed-based laboratory analytical data packages, 2) preparation of Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and Work Plan Addenda for follow-on investigation activities, and 3) additional field mobilizations and fixed-base laboratory costs associated with follow-on investigations to address data gaps. Color-Tec® data cost is 10% or less of the cost of fixed-based laboratory data and can further reduce or eliminate costly future additional investigation phases.

Refining the Characterization Conceptual Site Model Using Direct Push Technology/Membrane Interface Probe and Implementation of a Redox Remedy at the Heflin Garage Fuel Release Site, Falmouth, Virginia (State Lead)
Site Investigation for Metals and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography in a Mobile Laboratory at the Marino Brothers Scrap Yard, Rochester, PA (State Lead)

Cost and time savings have not been estimated at this time. However, a primary goal of the project was to use the Triad Approach to perform a DWS sampling program using multiple DSTs to increase data density, driving down ultimate removal costs by more effectively isolating and removing those contaminants requiring high cost disposal.

Site-Specific Uncertainty Management and Incremental Composite Sampling (ICS) in Conjunction with Field-Portable X-ray Fluorescence to Determine Hexavalent Chromium in Agricultural Soils for the Tannery Sludge Farm Fields Project, Missouri (State Lead)
Site-Specific Uncertainty Management and Incremental Sampling in Conjunction with Field-Portable X-ray Fluorescence to Delineate Metal Contamination in Residential Soil at the Jacobs Smelter Site in Stockton, Utah (State Lead)
Systematic Planning and Conceptual Site Model Case Study Basewide Hydrogeologic Characterization at Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS) China Lake, Ridgecrest, CA (U.S. Navy Lead)

The cost savings using this approach are estimated at 50% relative to traditional methods involving discrete and repetitive geology and hydrogeology investigations at specific IRP sites and AOCs.

Tools and Approaches for Managing Multi-Site, Multi-Year, Large-Volume Datasets in Order to Allow and Enhance Triad Implementation (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Millions of dollars have been saved and years of effort eliminated as a result of Triad-based program management. Following a less regimented process has allowed phases of work to be combined or completely eliminated at various sites, dramatically compressing the long-term schedule. On-board reviews conducted at the partnering table helped accelerate field schedules and allowed quick resolution of issues that might otherwise have been discussed for months via formal correspondence.

Triad Approach to Closure of OT-29 Radar Tower Site, Seymour Johnson AFB, Goldsboro, NC (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Rapid delineation saved $60,000 and six months. Life-cycle cleanup cost savings were $1.8 million and 12 years over the existing pump-and-treat system. Forward First Planning (F2P) accelerated remediation savings were $200,000 for new construction.

Triad Case Study: Expedited VOC Source Area Investigation at Naval Base San Diego, California (U.S. Navy Lead)

Using the Triad Approach resulted in cost savings estimated at $3 million and a schedule savings of approximately 6 years compared to a conventional approach.

Use of a Conceptual Site Model and Collaborative Data Sets Involving ROSTTM and Other Field-based Measurement Technologies to Design and Implement Soil Vapor Extraction and Petroleum Product Extraction Systems at the Hartford Plume Site, Hartford, Illinois (PRP Lead)

Cost and time savings have not been quantified by the project team. Team consensus, however, was that the HRSC approach using the ROSTTM in conjunction with other collaborative tools provided the high-density data collection needs for the site much more efficiently and with greater overall accuracy than would be possible with a conventional drilling and sampling program.

Use of a Dynamic Work Strategy and an On-site Laboratory to Remediate a Range of Semivolatile Organics and Metals in Sediment at Loring Air Force Base, Operable Unit-13 - Basewide Surface Water and Sediment, Limestone, Maine (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Without the on-site laboratory, the field team would have needed quick turnaround analysis from off-site laboratories to keep the expensive removal equipment operating. Based on financial data obtained from the Air Force, the use of an on-site laboratory saved more than 50 percent of the project’s potential analytical costs for off-site laboratories (actual total analytical cost was approximately $730,000 versus total estimated cost of $1,560,000 using an off-site laboratory). Since the total cost of OU-13 was almost $15,000,000, the on-site analysis alone saved 5 percent of the total project cost.

In addition, using a Triad Approach provided the Air Force with further cost savings because OU-13 required ecological restoration after the soil excavation was complete. Early in the remediation process, the project team found that the flexibility provided by the on-site laboratory allowed it to modify the general restoration plan in real-time to fit the remedial excavation activities and begin the restoration efforts almost in tandem. Although the team originally planned to do the remediation in two construction seasons and the restoration in the third season, the restoration was actually completed with the removal activities in the second construction season saving a year in time and additional mobilization and labor costs. Because remediation of the entire site cost about $15,000,000 for less than two full seasons of work, if a third season had been required, the project would have likely cost at least another $5,000,000.

Use of a Hand-held Vapor Monitor to Guide Soil Excavation and Groundwater Treatment at a Site Contaminated with Jet Fuel (Area of Concern 33), Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, Goldsboro, North Carolina (U.S. Air Force Lead)

The project team estimates that this small project (the soil delineation and excavation program cost only $9,000) yielded approximately $15,000 in cost savings and a minimum of approximately 3 weeks in time savings relative to a traditional phased approach, primarily because the number and length of mobilizations were minimized, and the time between the mobilizations was also minimized.

Use of a Microextraction Gas Chromatography Method to Delineate Chlordane in Soil at MacDill Air Force Base Area of Concern 82, Florida (U.S. Air Force Lead)

No formal cost comparison was performed.

Use of a Triad Strategy and On-site Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry to Monitor the Performance of an In-Situ Electrical Resistance Heating Remediation System in a Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Source Area at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center Superfund Site, WA (U.S. Army Lead)

No formal cost comparison was performed; however, cost avoidance based on system optimization and reduced lag time between data collection and decision-making is expected to be significant.

Use of an Evolving Conceptual Site Model and Collaborative High-Density Sampling Methods to Expedite Site Characterization and Remediation at a Former Landfill, Underground Storage Tank, and Manufactured Gas Plant, Poudre River Site, Fort Collins, CO (EPA Lead)

The project team estimated that use of the Triad Approach for site characterization resulted in a 30 percent cost savings compared with an equivalent conventional characterization approach. In this estimate, the conventional approach is assumed to involve additional mobilizations and fixed-base laboratory analytical methods. In addition to saving costs, use of the Triad Approach and HRSC increased the density and quality of the data set used to make decisions about the site. A conventional approach would not, for example, have been cost-effective for collecting a density of data comparable to that obtained using the PDB samplers, which allowed evaluation of groundwater discharge to surface water every 25 feet over a quarter mile stretch of the river.

Use of an On-site Laboratory and Decision Support Tools to Delineate a Range of Organic Compounds and Metals in Soil and Groundwater at the Milltown Redevelopment Site, Milltown, New Jersey (State Lead)
Cost and time savings were not quantified by the project team.
Use of Direct Push Techniques, Membrane Interface Probe, and Colorimetric Test Kits for Solvent Plume Delineation at Hurlburt Field, Site ST-123, Florida (U.S. Air Force Lead)

No cost savings evaluation was developed. However, the compressed time frame of the Triad investigation (see the "Triad Project Benefits" section) would be expected to produce significant cost savings relative to a multiphase investigation process.

Use of Direct Push Technology and X-ray Fluorescence for Efficient Cleanup of Radionuclides in Stream Sediments at the Rattlesnake Creek Site Tonawanda, New York (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lead)

Cost and time savings were not quantified. However, it is believed the Triad Approach helped to reduce the overall project cost by saving time and money in the following ways:

In the assessment of the project team, the use of real-time field tools under the Triad Approach significantly reduced overall analytical costs and delays by minimizing the number of samples requiring expensive alpha spectroscopy analyses for radionuclides at off-site laboratories.

Use of Direct-Push Technology and On-site Laboratory to Delineate the Extent of Contamination in Soil for Operable Unit 02, Kauffman & Minteer, Inc., New Jersey (EPA Lead)
Use of Dynamic Work Strategies and Streamlined Laboratory Methods to Characterize and Remediate Dioxin-Contaminated Soil at Wasatch Chemical Superfund Site, Salt Lake City, Utah (PRP Lead)

The project team assessed a verifiable cost savings of $300,000 based on estimated versus final soil excavation volumes. The lead potentially responsbile party (PRP) further estimated that the project saved them approximately $30 million in anticipated liability based on the buyouts received from other potential PRPs for the site.

Use of Fast Turnaround Laboratory Analysis and Field Test Kits to Delineate a Broad Range of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater at Four Sites in a Single Mobilization, Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida (U.S. Air Force Lead)

Based on past experience at Avon Park and other similar USAF installations, the approximate cost of conducting a SI would have been $250,000 per site. Since all four sites included in the initial Triad implementation at Avon Park would have required an RI, the cost per site would have increased by $500,000. The programmatic budget to completely delineate all four sites would have been between $3.1-3.3 million (estimated).

Contractor expenses for the work actually completed at the time this profile was written was approximately $1.42 million. When government oversight and participation is added in at an estimated rate of 10%, the total cost of the project using the Triad approach is estimated at $1.6 million. Based on above programmatic budget estimate of $3.1 to $3.3 million, the cost of implementing the Triad Approach at Avon Park is therefore estimated to have resulted in a 50% reduction in the cost of a SI and RI using more conventional investigative procedures.

In addition to a significant cost savings, the consensus of the project team is that implementation of the Triad approach at Avon Park advanced progress at the four sites by approximately 3 years. Compressing the SI and RI investigations into one mobilization eliminated a whole phase of data interpretation, document production, and review resulting in lower project costs in a shorter timeframe.

Use of Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (FP-XRF) and the Triad Approach To Investigate the Extent of Lead Contamination at a Small Arms Training Range, Fort Lewis, WA (U.S. Army Lead)

No formal cost comparison was performed. Because the high-resolution, Triad-based approach minimized the number of mobilizations necessary to characterize the site, it is estimated that months of time and thousands of dollars were saved.

Use of Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) and the Triad Approach To Remediate Lead Contamination at a Small Arms Training Range Fort Lewis, WA (U.S. Army Lead)

No formal cost comparison was performed for the project as a whole because comparative costs for a "traditional" cleanup were difficult to estimate. The project team estimated an analytical cost savings of approximately $5,000. In addition, the Triad approach helped to reduce the overall cleanup cost by saving time and money in the following ways:

Use of Field-Based Methods and Dynamic Work Strategies for Characterization of Petroleum Constituents, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Metals at the Crescent Wire Property, Assunpink Creek Greenway Project, Trenton, NJ (Municipal/Local Lead)

A quantitative evaluation of cost savings was not performed by the project team or stakeholders. However, the Triad approach allowed for the combined site investigation (SI) and remedial investigation (RI) activities (including plan and report preparation) to be compressed into less than a three-month period. Schedule-wise, the project team estimated a time savings of six months to a year. The total costs of the field investigation, including off-site confirmatory analytical samples was $32,727. This investigation was completed over four days.

The success of the brief field program in characterizing the Site without the need for additional mobilizations may have produced significant cost- as well as time-savings over a traditional "phased" approach. Moreover, using lower cost field-based methods allowed for the collection of more samples during the field investigation, which reduced the uncertainty of site characterization.

Use of Immunoassay Test Kits to Delineate Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil During a Focused Site Inspection, Ross Incinerator Site, Colman, SD (EPA Lead)

No cost or time savings have been quantified. However, a conventional SI approach, employing more limited judgmental ("worst case") sampling, may have resulted in the Site being unnecessarily designated for the Superfund Remedial program, which would have had significant cost and time implications.

Use of Immunoassay Test Kits, Systematic Project Planning, and Dynamic Working Strategies to Facilitate Rapid Cleanup of the Wenatchee Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center Site, Wenatchee, Washington (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lead)

Characterization, cleanup, and closure were accomplished in a single 4-month field mobilization. The project cost of $589,000 was about half the $1.2 million estimated for a more traditional site characterization and remediation scenario. That scenario would have required multiple rounds of field mobilization, sampling, sample shipment, laboratory analysis, and data assessment. The dynamic approach resulted in substantial savings in the areas of soil analysis and waste transport and disposal.

Use of Immunoassay, Gas Chromatography, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP) to Detect Pesticides in Soil, East Palo Alto, CA (Municipal/Local Lead)

No formal cost comparison was performed. It is estimated that months of time and thousands of dollars were saved.

Use of Multiple Direct-Push Sensors and a Mobile Laboratory to Delineate Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA (U.S. Navy Lead)

Cost avoidance estimated at $2.5 M was realized, and the site characterization and cleanup schedule was reduced by approximately 3 years.

Use of PCB Immunoassay to Investigate a Contaminated River Reach in the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington (EPA Lead)

The incremental cost of the field IA program was approximately $24,000, or 16% of the overall investigation cost of $147,000. Cost savings were not the emphasis of this study because 100% of the IA samples were subjected to off-site laboratory analyses in order to generate a collaborative data set. However, the activity demonstrated that the IA in conjunction with site visualization can accelerate nature and extent characterizations for PCBs in sediments. The low relative cost and high data generation rate for the kits further showed how a more accurate CSM can be developed through high data densities and in-field decision-making.

A retrospective analysis of the patterns available at various stages of the investigation (short- and intermediate-term with partial fixed-base laboratory data, and after all data were in hand) suggests that the key CSM questions were answered largely by the field method; that is, patterns were discernible that supported both upstream flow and bank-origin collocated plumes. Numerous prior phases of sampling had been performed that had failed to identify the boundaries of contamination. This sampling finally answered the major CSM questions in a single mobilization largely using field-based methods, and further sampling activities will not be required prior to the design phase of site response.

Use of the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) and Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (DSITMS) To Investigate a Potential Source Area at the Vint Hill Farms Station (VHFS) BRAC Site, VA (U.S. Army Lead)

The cost and schedule savings using the Triad Approach were significant. The Army had spent over $500,000 and 3 years working to arrive at the point where the Triad Approach was implemented. From that point on, the Army spent approximately $75,000 in developing the Systematic Planning Outline and AREE 34 Work Plan, and another $135,000 for the field work, all of which was accomplished in 11 months. Including the final analysis and Summary Report, the total Triad effort cost approximately $260,000 and took 15 months. At the end of this expedited time frame, a tentative agreement on a proposed remedy for the site was reached with the regulators.

As a comparison, had this site continued using the conventional iterative investigation approach used previously, it would have likely taken at least another 3 years and $500,000, assuming the sampling plan successfully resulted in samples being collected in the right places. This assumption is based on the need to put in at least another 26 temporary monitoring wells followed by installation and sampling of an additional 4 to 6 permanent monitoring wells based on the results of the temporary monitoring wells. These costs were avoided by using the Triad Approach as it investigated the designated area quickly and provided high-resolution data that supported CSM confirmation. By eliminating almost 2 years of conventional investigation, the Triad Approach not only saved money on investigative costs, it saved money on project lifecycle costs by reducing the costs of regulatory and Army efforts to manage the site while an extended investigation occurred. In addition, by resulting in a quicker resolution at AREE 34, the regulatory and Army personnel were allowed to focus their time and energy on other environmental cleanup sites.



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