Triad is a Federal/State Interagency Partnership
Triad Project Profiles
The Triad Project Profiles contain information about projects that have used elements of the Triad approach. Click on an item in the list to view the detailed profile. Alternatively, you can search the profiles. To learn more about the profiles, see the About page.
- High-resolution site characterization (HRSC) of multiple contaminants in soil in a single mobilization of less than one week
- Development and application of field-based action levels for use with test kits
- Collaborative use of field-based and laboratory methods to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty
- Use of decision support tools (DSTs) to evaluate extent of contamination and devise an investigation and removal strategy (DSTs included the FIeld EnvironmentaL Decision Support (FIELDS) and Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) software packages)
- Design of a Triad Approach sampling and analysis program to increase data density and limit uncertainty using field-based measurement technologies and real-time decision-making in a dynamic work strategy (DWS) framework.
- A large amount of data was generated for multiple contaminants and media in a single mobilization, while providing reduced uncertainty and greater confidence in assessing contaminant sources and extent
- The City and other stakeholders were able to quickly identify a remedial strategy for this Brownfields site based on the data collected, to be in a position to move forward with property redevelopment
- A detailed, basewide conceptual site model (CSM) was built for use as a decision making tool to support the investigation of over 300 sites and areas of concern (AOCs) addressed under the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) at NAWS China Lake
- The study used isotope geochemistry and other in-depth hydrogeologic investigation techniques to assess the groundwater pathway to potential receptors near the base
- The study clarified which sites and AOCs pose the greatest risk to surrounding receptors based on their location at the base, and which sites should be considered for no further action for the groundwater pathway
- The cost savings using this approach are estimated at 50% over traditional methods involving the construction of discrete CSMs for specific sites
- Application of an adaptive sampling strategy to minimize the mobilizations needed to completely characterize the site
- Performance of a demonstration of method applicability (DMA) study at the beginning of the field investigation to ensure that field portable x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) technology could meet data quality and decision objectives for the project
- Use of FP-XRF along with collaborative laboratory data to assess risk associated with lead and other metals
- Effective systematic project planning to obtain stakeholder consensus on the objectives, conceptual site model (CSM), decision criteria, and technical approach for a complex urban redevelopment project
- Use of immunoassay test kits to manage sampling uncertainty in the field, in combination with laboratory gas chromatography (GC) analyses to manage analytical uncertainty, to build a decision-quality database
- A dynamic sampling program successfully demonstrated a lack of hotspots and low overall risk, allowing for fair and accurate property valuations
- Supported through systematic project planning (SPP), immunoassay (IA) test kits were used to create a high-density data set for soil to support a potential no further remedial action planned (NFRAP) determination.
- Regression analyses indicated that the field test kit results and correlating contract laboratory program (CLP) results comprised a collaborative data set of sufficient quality for decision-making. The collaborative data set was used to derive a field-based action level that could be used for decision-making with the test kit results.
- Complete, high-resolution characterization of lead in soil in a single mobilization
- Excavation of lead-contaminated soil completed in real-time guided by field analytical results
- Completion of a demonstrations of methods applicability (DMA) study designed to assess variability associated with sample preparation methods
- Development and application of field-based action levels using field portable x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF)
- Collaborative use of field-based methods and fixed-base laboratory methods to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty
- Collaborative use of field-based methods and decision support tools (DSTs) to limit decision and overall project uncertainty
- Use of innovative field sampling methods including the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) probe and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT) along with rotosonic drilling and microwells for sample collection
- Design of a high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) sampling and analysis program to increase data density and limit decision uncertainty using systematic project planning (SPP), dynamic work strategy (DWS) work plans, and field-based measurement technologies for real-time decision-making
- Use of a performance-based measurement system (PBMS) to determine applicability of field methods for specific site matrices, and to modify and use methods collaboratively to provide decision-quality data
- Development of a mature conceptual site model (CSM) for evaluation and implementation of a remedial design
- This project rolled site investigation, remediation, and close-out activities into one field deployment, accelerating the clean-up schedule and eliminating remobilization costs
- Field-based action levels to support real-time decision-making at the Site were developed for methods that cost only pennies per sample
- Real-time data from multiple on-site measurement methods were managed and analyzed on-site using laptops, spreadsheets, and Geographical Information System (GIS) software
- Navy Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) outfitted with cone penetrometer testing (CPT), membrane interface probe (MIP), and direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS) allowed for real-time collection of 690 feet of continuous lithologic information and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration data
- Collaborative use of field-based methods (CPT, MIP and DSITMS) and laboratory methods (24-hour EPA Method 8260B VOC groundwater data) to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty
- Dynamic work strategy (DWS) relying on authority given to one agency to represent all other regulatory agencies to allow real-time decision making
- Use of an on-site Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) and other field-based methods for compliance, operational, and performance monitoring during aggressive source removal
- Application of system monitoring data to ensure attainment of hydraulic containment goals, modify system extraction operations, and optimize treatment plant efficiency dynamically
- Evaluation of remediation system effectiveness by organizing all site data into four independent lines of evidence
- Multiple innovative field sampling methods including push probe groundwater sampling with an on-site lab, rotosonic drilling with sheen, dye and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence tests to determine non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) presence, electromagnetic geophysical techniques to find buried drums and installation of multi-port wells for vertical groundwater profiling
- Design of a high-resolution sampling and analysis program to increase data density and limit decision uncertainty using systematic planning, dynamic work plans, and field-based measurement technologies for real-time decision-making
- Development of a mature conceptual site model (CSM) necessary for evaluation and implementation of a remedial design
- Application of a Triad Approach dynamic work strategy (DWS) to minimize the mobilizations needed to completely characterize the site
- Use of membrane interface probe (MIP) and direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS) along with collaborative laboratory data to assess risk associated with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride
- High-resolution site characterization (HRSC) approach used to obtain consensus that high level contamination (i.e., source area) is very limited
- Systematic planning used detailed information from a sister facility to address operational history data gaps and select compound-specific, real-time measurement technologies
- A Triad-based, high-resolution dynamic field investigation located and determined the magnitude of multiple source areas containing chlorinated solvents and petroleum compounds in soil and groundwater in a single mobilization
- Field-based methods and fixed laboratory methods were used collaboratively to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty, increasing sample coverage at the Site without significantly increasing costs
- Delineation of "hot spots" using real time field-based analytical methods
- Reduction in volume of contaminated soil to be remediated by using high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) to more precisely delineate the contaminated areas
- Use of field-based methods to lower expenses of remedial activities, reduce insurance premiums, and gain buyer interest
- Application of field-based methods to manage overall project uncertainty
- This project demonstrated that significant cost savings can be achieved even at a project that is small in scope using the Triad approach ($9,000 total remedial action cost).
- Removal of jet-fuel contaminated soils was directed using real-time field measurement of soil headspace. The Conceptual Site Model was simultaneously refined, and the location for in situ treatment of groundwater was adjusted during the same field program to address previously unknown areas of impact.
- Development of an evolving conceptual site model (CSM) to determine the source and extent of contamination at a complex site.
- Thorough and cost-effective site characterization using innovative sampling and field-based analytical technologies.
- Secured cooperation of potentially responsible parties (PRPs) through systematic planning and building a CSM.
- Refinement of CSM allowed project team to focus efforts where needed to support delineation of nature and extent and design of a remedy.
- Although targeted sites had been stalled in the state underground storage tank (UST) petroleum release compensation fund program (some, for as long as 10 years), conceptual site models (CSMs) at each of the five sites were sufficiently refined using a Triad-based, high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) approach to allow corrective action plans (CAPs) to be prepared.
- Team members were able to move from project planning through a three-week period of data collection to preparation of CAPs in 2 months.
- Documented savings of $109,000 for three of the five sites where prior investigations had been completed.
- Real-time measurement technologies (membrane interface probe [MIP]) were linked to laboratory methods in collaborative data sets to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty.
- Systematic planning for excavation and treatment of contaminated soil from more than 80 sites
Substantial efforts to develop social capital needed for project success
- Cost savings of more than $24 million compared with off-site transport and treatment
- Application of a dynamic sampling strategy to minimize time lag for confirmation data during soil removal activities
- Use of FPXRF to increase sample numbers and reduce uncertainty associated with site heterogeneity
- Use of microextraction techniques to allow rapid and cost effective analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
- Collaborative use of microextraction analysis, field kits, and fixed-base laboratory data to manage sampling and analytical uncertainty.
- High-resolution data density allowed regulatory team members make more confident decisions regarding the level of characterization at each site.
- A demonstration of methods applicability (DMA) for EPA Method 4020 (immunoassay) for sediments in a regulatory context.
- Application of Triad-based, high resolution approach in developing an adaptive sampling strategy that minimized the number of field mobilizations.
- Adaptive sampling approach used to obtain consensus on conceptual site model (CSM) and to support a regulatory decision.
- Microextraction techniques allowed rapid and cost effective analysis of chlordane and other pesticides.
- Increased data density allowed regulatory team members to make more confident decisions regarding the level of characterization.
- The Triad-based approach allowed MacDill Air Force Base (MAFB) to proceed from project planning to the development of a site remedy in 6 months.
- The Triad-based investigation leveraged a partnership and social capital already established between MAFB and the regulators.
- Use of high-resolution, field-based innovative technologies to make real-time decisions during site characterization activities.
- Statistical correlations developed between innovative field-based analysis methods and proven fixed-base laboratory analysis methods.
- Development of a high-resolution dynamic work strategy (DWS) work plan based on precise decision logic achieved through systematic project planning (SPP).
- Site closure eminent within 10 months after the initiation of the Triad-based high-resolution site investigation.
- Nature and extent of pesticide- and dioxin-affected soils were fully characterized in a single mobilization.
- Extent of soil contamination, and thus excavation and treatment volumes, were precisely identified prior to initiation of soil excavation activities.
- Consequently, confirmation sampling and analysis (typically performed to confirm that all contaminated soil has been remediated) was eliminated, thus eliminating these sampling and analysis costs as well as cost and schedule uncertainties associated with conventional soil remediation.
- The process and results received regulatory approval, was performed within schedule, and resulted in verifiable cost savings of over $300,000.
- Integrated site characterization and remediation project included characterization, excavation, and segregation of soil based on results from on-site analyses using immunoassay (IA) test kits.
- Cost savings were realized through reduced analytical costs (compared with traditional fixed-based laboratory analysis), reduced waste volumes for treatment/disposal, and reduced mobilization/demobilization costs that would have been incurred if multiple mobilizations were required.
- The project cost of $589,000 was about half the $1.2 million estimated for a more traditional site characterization and remediation scenario.
- Use of a Triad-based, high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) approach within the framework of the multi-agency radiation survey and site investigation manual (MARSSIM)
- Systematic planning conducted with data users and regulators to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) for remedial action, and to derive site-specific cleanup levels using MARSSIM
- Use of total uranium concentration as a surrogate value to represent radionuclide contaminants of concern (COCs) for the purposes of field-based decision-making
- Collection of a single data set to support site characterization data needs, excavation planning needs, and closure requirements, incorporating direct push technology (DPT) and real-time X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements to save costs and expedite remedial design
- Use of the Triad Approach saved the Air Force over 50 percent in analytical costs ($830,000) and about 25 percent in total project cost (approximately $5 million), while condensing a remedial action from three construction seasons to two.
- An on-site laboratory provided data of sufficient quantity and quality, that planned off-site laboratory analyses for "confirmation" purposes could be eliminated.
- Correlations established between on-site total contaminant concentrations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results allowed the use of the on-site total concentration values for waste disposal decisions.
- A broad range of contaminants and source areas were delineated in a single, 5-week field program, such that remedial activities and property transfer could proceed efficiently to the satisfaction of developers and regulators.
- 30,000 analytical results were generated and communicated in real-time using data management and decision support tools.
- A previously-unknown chlorobenzene plume was found and delineated in 4 days through an adaptive sampling program.
- Development of a conceptual site model (CSM) to identify preferential pathways for migration of free petroleum product and associated vapors to potential receptors.
- Use of the Rapid Optical Screening Tool (ROSTTM) along with other high-resolution, real-time measurement technologies and conventional soil and core analyses to identify the nature and extent of contamination associated with released free product.
- Compilation of collaborative data sets to predict where vapor migration issues might be encountered and where product removal efforts should be concentrated.
- Application of dynamic work strategies (DWS) to constantly evolve the CSM and pinpoint critical data gaps for later investigations.
- Use of the CSM to develop a consensus vision among a broad stakeholder group concerning the direction of field studies and the design and evaluation of treatment systems.
- A plume of chlorinated solvents in groundwater and a smear zone of contaminants associated with Stoddard solvent were delineated in a single, 14-day field program.
- Over 4,500 analytical results were generated and communicated in real-time using data management and decision support tools.
- The real-time, high-resolution data set allowed for immediate implementation of a remedial strategy (the removal of 500 cubic yards of soil in the unsaturated zone followed by a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) program).
- The rapid implementation of the remedy to the satisfaction of all stakeholders (within 5 months of site discovery) allowed a critical national defense construction project to be completed on schedule.
- Soil sampling using test kits correlated with fixed laboratory analysis were used to delineate the final extent of contaminated soil to be remediated.
- Correlations between the test kits and laboratory analyses were used to develop field-based action limits (FBALs) so that test kit data could be used to make "clean/dirty" decisions.
- The frequency of supporting fixed laboratory analysis was scaled based on the nearness of the test kit results to the FBALs.
- Over 7,000 tons of soil contaminated with pesticides was treated on-site by low temperature thermal desorption.
- Application of a membrane interface probe (MIP) to perform a high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) to refine the extent of fuel contamination, discover and delineate a previously unknown plume lobe, and estimate residual contamination remaining after treatment system shutdown.
- Use of a Triad Approach dynamic work strategy (DWS) to adaptively identify MIP sensing locations, with subsequent collection of groundwater samples to provide collaborative data.
- Real-time decision making by a stakeholder team using 3-D visualizations of the conceptual site model (CSM) developed from the MIP logs.
- Successful application of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) methods to delineate the emergent chemical 1,4-dioxane along with other volatile organic compounds in groundwater.
- SPME methods were applied in a mobile laboratory setting, allowing real-time decision making and establishment of piezometer sampling locations using a dynamic work strategy. Cost and time savings were realized over other analytical options involving fast turnaround analyses at off-site laboratories.
- Data density achieved with the SPME method allowed significant refinement of the conceptual site model (CSM) in differentiating contamination extent between wetland and upland areas, and in resolving stratification of contamination with depth.
- Color-Tec® test kit screening was applied at a site where full characterization of the extent of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) had not been achieved despite multiple previous investigations using conventional investigation methods as well as other emergent technologies.
- Reliance on test kits in conjunction with direct push technology (DPT) grab soil and groundwater sampling methods are estimated to have saved over $100,000 in analytical costs alone. The project team was able to effectively apply the field test kit results in a qualitative fashion ("positive" versus "negative" results) to guide dynamic decision-making.
- The high data density (greater than 1,250 sample results) achieved with the Color-Tec® kits resolved all remaining data gaps and enabled completion of the conceptual site model (CSM) in a single Triad Approach-based field investigation.
- The Triad Approach was used at this site as part of a broader strategy in applying high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) and green and sustainable remediation practices.
- A membrane interface probe (MIP) was used to delineate in high-resolution a persistent residual source zone for chlorobenzenes and other contaminants in clays beneath a former landfill. High-density MIP data were developed into daily 3-D visualizations to direct further data collection, allowing complete delineation and the framing of a remediation and redevelopment approach in a single mobilization.
- In addition to saving field analytical costs (estimated at 40-50%), the project team calculated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for the investigation based on efficiencies realized by the Triad Approach and the use of biofuels. It was calculated that this Triad application generated 26 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions relative to 45 tons projected for a conventional soil boring investigation at the site.
- Successful use of incremental composite sampling (ICS) in conjunction with in situ and ex situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis to delineate contamination for removal in residential yards.
- Empirical determination of short-scale heterogeneity on a site-specific basis by initial sampling in a vario-plot configuration, and using the observed level of spatial autocorrelation and variability to establish the number of ICS increments needed for full characterization of a decision unit (DU).
- Real-time application of data evaluation tools, including variance calculation sheets for the vario-plots and EPA’s Visual Sampling Plan (VSP) software, to establish and refine the sampling approach.
- Utilization of multiple field screening analytical methods, including a wireline cone penetrometer (CPT) for discrete soil sampling, coupled with a direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). No off-site fixed laboratory samples were needed to corroborate or confirm the field DSITMS data.
- Preparation of near real-time 2-dimensional and 3-D visualizations of DSITMS data using Earth Vision Software (EVS) for distribution to stakeholders and selection of additional sampling locations.
- Application of multiple remedies for dissolved phase solvent cleanup and mitigation of subslab vapor intrusion.
- Successful use of incremental composite sampling (ICS) in conjunction with in situ (during the pilot study) and ex situ (during the main study) field-portable x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) analysis to evaluate total chromium variability as a proxy for hexavalent chromium (Cr6) variability in soil to determine how many samples were needed to characterize Cr6 concentrations in farm fields formerly treated with Cr6-containing sludge.
- During the pilot study, an estimate of the magnitude of short-scale heterogeneity was determined empirically by sampling in a "vario-plot" configuration, and using the observed level of spatial autocorrelation and variability to establish the number of ICS increments needed for characterization of a decision unit (DU)
- Real-time application of data assessment tools, including variance calculation spreadsheets for the vario-plots, along with Visual Sample Plan (VSP), to establish and refine the sampling approach
- Direct push technology (DPT) used to implement soil borings in a cost effective manner
- On-site laboratory used in combination with off-site laboratory gas chromatography (GC) analysis to support real-time decision making during site characterization
- Combination of field-based work including soil gas sampling and off-site laboratory analysis and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures to manage overall project uncertainty
- The preliminary conceptual site model (CSM) was a product of systematic project planning (SPP) and evolved with the ongoing assistance of site stakeholders, including the regulatory agencies and the base environmental team.
- Decision logic diagrams guided the selection of initial and adaptive sample locations, depths, types and numbers as the dynamic work strategy (DWS)-based investigation progressed in real time.
- The plume was investigated using real-time measurement technologies, including: membrane interface probe (MIP) and cone penetrometer testing (CPT) direct sensing tools.
- An innovative approach and combination of sewer assessment technologies was used to identify suspected release locations in the storm sewer system and select MIP/CPT sampling targets.
- Adaptive sampling locations were identified based in part on three-dimensional visualizations of MIP response created with Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) software, which was loaded on a field laptop computer.
- Collaborative data were used to confirm several CSM alternatives generated during SPP.
- The improved CSM resulted in the construction of over 50% less monitoring wells than was originally proposed by the regulatory agency, providing a cost savings to the Navy.
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