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Frequently Asked Questions

Multiagency support for Triad
Triad is a Federal/State Interagency Partnership

Technical Assistance

Triad Background Information

  • There are a variety of Triad-related materials available through EPA's Hazardous Waste Clean-up Information (CLU-IN) web site These include various paper reprints and EPA documents (including case studies) that provide general Triad information.

  • The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) has prepared a document entitled, "Technical and Regulatory Guidance for the Triad Approach: A New Paradigm for Environmental Project Management." This document is designed to acquaint state regulators with key Triad concepts and benefits, and address some expected State regulator concerns. It is available on the ITRC website at under "Guidance Documents."

  • The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) also has prepared a document entitled, "Triad Implementation Guide." This document provides guidance for environmental organizations that want to implement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Triad process into their business practices. Reasons for implementing Triad are discussed, as are myths, potential obstacles, and lessons learned. Challenges and solutions to anticipated issues are discussed. The appendices include an example of an organization attempting to establish Triad as an internal policy. Other appendices include information on legal defensibility, budget and procurement issues, and acceptability of data generated via field methods and considerations dealing with risk assessment. It is available on the ITRC website at

Systematic Planning

  • Further information about EPA's Data Quality Objective (DQO) process can be found at The DQO process in general is applicable to Triad projects, with the following two caveats:

    • The DQO process is focused on data generation and use. Triad systematic planning broadens to include other project activities.

    • DQO-related guidance relies a great deal on classical statistics and hypothesis testing. These may or may not be applicable depending on the actual project goals and decisions to be made. Triad projects always ground selection and implementation of statistical procedures on both the project-specific CSM and specific project decisions. Remember that many common statistical procedures rest on assumptions of homogeneity that are violated by the spatial patterning of contamination usually found at contaminated sites, and statistical procedures structured around determining an average contaminant concentration may not be helpful when gathering data to refine a CSM, to meet certain regulatory standards, or to design remedial actions.

  • The United States Army Corps of Engineers has developed the Technical Project Planning process to assist in systematic planning of data collection activities. The TPP manual is available at the following URL:

  • EPA agency-wide quality system documents can be found at

Dynamic Work Strategies

  • EPA's Superfund program has developed a document entitled "Using Dynamic Field Activities for On-Site Decision Making: A Guide for Project Managers." This document discusses the use of field methods in a dynamic context and demonstrates EPA's acceptance of dynamic approaches to Superfund project management. Case study examples of Superfund projects using dynamic work strategies in the 1990s are covered in Chapter V, with more detailed case study discussions available as separate documents. The guidance and case studies can be accessed through the Superfund Dynamic Field Activities homepage at

Real-Time Measurement Systems

  • Characterization and Monitoring Technologies - USEPA, This is an online encyclopedia of sampling and field analytic technologies used to characterize contaminated soil and groundwater.

  • The Federal Remediation Round Table (FRTR) web site also has a listing of innovative characterization technologies that can be accessed at

  • While the RCRA SW-846 methods catalog is primarily focused on standard laboratory analyses, there are a number of real-time techniques such as XRF and immunoassay test kits that are included as well. A complete listing of SW-846 technologies can be found at

  • The EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program has been discontinued. However, an archive of reports on characterization, remediation, and monitoring technologies that have been profiled by the SITE program is available at

  • The EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program also has information pertinent to alternative real-time measurement system performance, and can be found at

Related ASTM Standards

There are a number of ASTM standards pertinent to Triad-related activities. Some care should be taken in applying ASTM standards for Triad projects. ASTM standards reflect best practices current at the time of publication. The technology base that supports the Triad (e.g., real-time measurement systems) has been evolving rapidly. This fact, coupled with site-specific requirements, may require modification to ASTM guidelines. ASTM standards can be ordered through ASTM's web site,

  • The ASTM has published a standard for conducting Expedited Site Characterization work (D6235-98a).

  • The ASTM has published a standard for accelerated site characterization of suspected petroleum releases (E1912-98).

  • The ASTM has published a standard for developing conceptual site models (E1689).

General Characterization/Remediation Resources

  • The EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory has published a CD-ROM called "Site Characterization Library, Volume 1, Release 2.5" that includes a wide range of general information pertinent to hazardous waste site characterization activities. The CD-ROM can be ordered from the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (1-800-490-9198, or


  • EPA maintains a listing of courses available to staff of EPA and other federal, state, tribal, and local governmental agencies involved in hazardous waste management and remediation (see The Training Exchange website at

  • Live Internet-based, on-line training is also periodically available as announced through the EPA Technology Innovation Program's TechDirect monthly list serve/newsletter and on the CLU-IN website (in the "Studio" section at Users can sign up to receive the electronic TechDirect newsletter by visiting the CLU-IN website at Recorded archives of past live Internet seminar deliveries are accessible anytime through this URL:

Accessing Triad Technical Support

EPA's Technology Innovation and Field Services Division provides stakeholders with support services for Triad projects including: Systematic planning, reviewing and providing comments on project documents, such as requests for proposals, work plans, field sampling plans, quality assurance plans, and conceptual site models; Facilitating the consideration and use of the Triad approach; Providing information about field-based technologies, appropriate sample design, and data management strategies for site assessment and cleanup; Identifying how dynamic work strategies and decision support tools can be incorporated in site assessment activities; as well as evaluating remedial technologies and their advantages and limitations for site-specific features and needs. For more information at the following types of sites, please contact:

Superfund sites: Steve Dyment, Office of Research and Development, (303) 312-7044,

RCRA/UST: Michael Adam, Technology Integration and Information Branch, (703) 603-9915,

Brownfields: Carlos Pachon, Technology Integration and Information Branch, (703) 603-9904,

  • EPA Brownfields Technology Support Center - USEPA, Coordinated through EPA's Technology Innovation Program, the Brownfields Technology Support Center provides technical assistance and information to Brownfields decision makers with regard to the technical aspects of investigating and cleaning a site and acquiring those services.
    Link The Brownfields and Land Revitalization Technology Support Center Website
  • Hazardous Waste Cleanup Information (CLU-IN) - USEPA, The CLU-IN site provides information about innovative treatment technologies and site characterization technologies to the hazardous waste remediation community. It describes programs, organizations, publications, and other tools for Federal and state personnel, consulting engineers, technology developers and vendors, remediation contractors, researchers, community groups, and individual citizens.
    Link Hazardous Waste Clean-Up Information
  • Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) - ITRC, The Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a state-led coalition working with industry and stakeholders to achieve regulatory acceptance of innovative approaches. The ITRC has prepared more than 20 guidance documents on a range of technical topics, many of which include case studies.
    Link Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) Website
  • Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century (21M2) - USEPA, This EPA initiative is deploying emerging measurement and monitoring technologies in response to waste management and site cleanup program needs. A variety of reports and technology summaries are available. Note the site stopped being maintained in 2010.
    Link Measurement and Monitoring Technologies for the 21st Century (21M2) Website

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