Triad is a Federal/State Interagency Partnership
Reference Documents/Internet Resources
There are a wide range of documents, including papers, publications, guidance, reports, etc., that provide useful Triad-pertinent information.
Summary of the Triad Approach (38 KB)
ASTM Expedited Site Characterization
Overview Best Management Practices
Project Planning: Guidance for Writing Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPPs) for Environmental Data Collection
Sample Acquisition, Handling & Analysis
Documents related to sample acquisition and handling.
Sample Integrity & Preservation
Sample Support & Compositing
Sampling Designs & Statistics
Sampling Technologies & QC
Subsample Support & Sample Preparation
Sampling Designs and Sampling QC for Soils and Sediments
Includes guidance and information about statistical soil sampling designs, incremental-composite sampling designs, sample support, soil processing and subsampling, and Gy theory.
Chemical Analysis of Contaminants and Analytical QC
- A Rationale for the Assessment of Errors in the Sampling of Soils - USEPA EPA/600/4-90/013, This document provides a foundation for answering two basic questions: How many, and what type, of samples are required to assess the quality of data in a field sampling effort (quality assessment samples)? How can the information from the quality assessment samples be used to identify and control sources of error and uncertainties in the measurement process?
A Rationale for the Assessment of Errors in the Sampling of Soils (499 KB)
- EPA Observational Economy Series, Volume 1 - USEPA, These two documents describe novel ways to use classical statistics to determine an average contaminant concentration: compositing and ranked sets.
EPA Observational Economy Series, Volume 1: Composite Sampling (914 KB)
- EPA Observational Economy Series, Volume 2 - USEPA, These two documents describe novel ways to use classical statistics to determine an average contaminant concentration: compositing and ranked sets.
EPA Observational Economy Series, Volume 2: Ranked Set Sampling (973 KB)
- Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards for Soils, Solid Media, and Groundwater: Overview + Volumes 1, 2, and 3. - USEPA, If appropriate to the CSM, statistical tests may aid decisions that the cleanup of a contaminated site complete. These 4 documents cover the ways classical statistics may be used.
An Overview of Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards for Soils, Solid Media, and Groundwater, EPA Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (PDF) (1.1 MB)
Volume 1: Soils (PDF) (3.9 MB)
Volume 2: Groundwater (PDF) (6.5 MB)
Volume 3: Reference-based Soils (PDF) (3.6 MB)
- Making Data Meaningful: A Guide to Writing Stories About Numbers - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), This guide was prepared within the framework of the UNECE Work Session on Statistical Dissemination and Communication. It is intended as a practical tool to help managers, statisticians and media relations officers use text, tables, graphics and other information to bring statistics to life using effective writing techniques. It contains suggestions, guidelines and examples but not golden rules. This publication recognizes that there are many practical and cultural differences among statistical offices, and that approaches vary from country to country.
Making Data Meaningful: A Guide to Writing Stories About Numbers (502 KB)
- Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities - Unified Guidance - USEPA, This guidance contains a compilation of statistical methods recommended for groundwater monitoring at RCRA and other facilities. It provides comprehensive all
strategies for designing the statistical aspects of facility detection, compliance, or corrective action monitoring systems.
Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities - Unified Guidance (7.3 MB)
Top of page
- Conceptual Site Model—A conceptual site model (CSM) is a representation of the relationships among key site features that pertain to the decisions that need to be made.
- Conceptual Site Model Checklist (PDF) (63 KB) | MS Word Version (62 KB)
- Examples of Conceptual Site Models Presentations
- Example of Preliminary Conceptual Site Model Report—These files make up the preliminary CSM for Operable Unit 4 of the CORNELL DUBILIER ELECTRONICS SUPERFUND site. The focus at OU 4 is the sediments, floodplains soils and surface waters of the Bound Brook in the vicinity of the former Cornell Dubilier facility property. The property, presently known as the Hamilton Industrial Park, is located at 333 Hamilton Boulevard in South Plainfield, NJ.
- Decision Tool for Groundwater Cleanup of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes at DOE Sites—The objective of this project was to develop and test a decision tool and process to support responsible decisionmaking regarding alternative remedial approaches at sites containing groundwater contaminated with cVOCs. The cVOC Remediation Decision Tool (cVOC Tool) has been designed specifically to be useful at sites with any type of ongoing treatment, and to give fair consideration of all types of alternatives, including EA and MNA.
Decision Tool for Groundwater Cleanup of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes at DOE Sites (1.3 MB)
- Revitalizing Petroleum Brownfields with the Triad Approach - USEPA, This is a website that contains a comprehensive planning process for communities and site owners.
Revitalizing Petroleum Brownfields with the Triad Approach
- Sample Uncertainties Worksheets—Within the context of the Triad approach, the term "uncertainty" is used broadly to refer to things that are unknown or incompletely understood. Uncertainty associated with hazardous waste sites can be decision-related, model-related, analytical, sampling-related, or relational.
- Systematic Project Planning—Systematic project planning (SPP) is the most important and universally applicable element of the Triad approach. Triad systematic planning is a common sense approach used to identify the decision that needs to be made to reach project goals, determine the uncertainty associated with the decision based on current site understanding, and develop methods for managing that uncertainty so that decisions can be made with acceptable levels of confidence.